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EHR model selection: integrated manufacturer or professional manufacturer

in the process of enterprise EHR selection, the most difficult problem for human resources and information management departments is whether to choose an integrated manufacturer or a professional manufacturer. This is a big problem related to the trend of EHR system

at any time, the sentence "what is suitable is the best" is absolutely correct, but the key question is what is suitable and what is the suitable standard

first, integration or flexibility

whether EHR chooses integrated manufacturers or professional manufacturers, the primary problem is whether enterprise information systems emphasize system integration or flexibility

1. Advantages and risks of integration

the so-called integration is manifested in the high integration between the sub modules of the enterprise information system. ERP system is a highly integrated information management system, which integrates the internal production management, logistics system, financial management, sales and other businesses of the enterprise, as well as the logistics and capital flow information of external suppliers, markets and customers

high integration brings very obvious advantages, such as real-time sharing of data and data processing results according to permissions, unique source of data, avoiding researchers' design, synthesis, modification and processing of materials so that their degradation performance can be adjusted and controlled according to different utilization needs, repeated input, reducing data redundancy, multi-path query of system information, etc

but integration also brings another risk. In short, the higher the degree of integration of multiple subsystems, the larger the system and the more complex the data structure, the greater the difficulty of system adjustment. Even a seemingly subtle adjustment may lead to a very complex adjustment involving a lot of related data within the system

for example, SAP system is the best integrated ERP system in the industry, with more than 10000 forms built in. In order to ensure high integration requirements, the forms are interrelated. Similarly, the HR module also involves many forms. The HR form is also related to the finance, manufacturing, sales and other modules in ERP. When adjusting the HR form, you must also adjust the associated form

2. Advantages and risks of flexibility

the so-called flexibility is reflected in the implementation degree and difficulty of enterprise information system configuration according to users' personalized needs

the advantage of flexibility is obvious: it can quickly and comprehensively respond to customers' personalized needs. Ideally, with a highly flexible management system, customers can build a business system that suits their needs with a few clicks of the mouse

of course, flexibility will also bring many problems. For example, high flexibility will inevitably reduce integration, and will have a certain impact on product performance

3. Integration and flexibility cannot be achieved simultaneously

to a certain extent, integration and flexibility are a pair of contradictions, and the two cannot be achieved simultaneously, although more and more new technologies have partially alleviated this problem; However, flexibility and integration are still two endpoints of a line segment, and we can only seek the best balance between them. If enterprise operation requires higher system integration, EHR built in ERP system by integrated manufacturers should be selected; Conversely, enterprises that rely more on flexibility should choose professional EHR manufacturers

second, the main influencing factors

how to make a judgment between integration and flexibility for a specific enterprise? This mainly depends on the following factors:

1. Enterprise informatization strategy

generally speaking, enterprise informatization strategy can be divided into loose coupling and tight coupling. In the software field, "coupling" refers to the degree of dependency between software components. There is no need to dwell on difficult computer terms. We understand loose coupling and tight coupling from the most basic point of view: under the tight coupling strategy, integrity is the basic goal of enterprise informatization construction. Therefore, generally, enterprises implementing the tight coupling strategy will choose an ERP manufacturer to be responsible for the overall informatization implementation of the enterprise; Under the loose coupling strategy, each subsystem can be relatively modular, so enterprises can choose the products of the strongest professional manufacturers in each business field, and then use various software and hardware as intermediaries to realize system integration

for example, tight coupling is to form a fist, and the key is to act together and form a joint force; Loose coupling is to create a pair of palms. The key is dexterity, ten fingers are relatively independent and can be effectively coordinated. You can play the piano

obviously, under the tightly coupled informatization strategy, enterprises will tend to be integrated; Under loose coupling, enterprises pay more attention to flexibility. From the overall trend of global informatization strategy, SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) is being recognized by most people. Its core is that loosely coupled coarse-grained application components can be deployed, combined and used in a distributed manner according to the needs, advocating the independence, reusability and professionalism of each business unit module, and then integrating different business modules through a professional integration tool. Therefore, SOA can be regarded as a loosely coupled information strategy

2. The industry characteristics also affect the EHR selection of enterprises. The value chain and operation process of some industries are closely intertwined, and the process requirements are very high. The procurement, manufacturing, sales, finance, human resources and other links involved are closely linked. The information systems of these industries need to be more integrated. The most prominent industry is manufacturing. Whether it is automobile manufacturing or food production, all links from raw material procurement to sales should be tightly coupled. The closer the links are connected, the higher the efficiency of the whole system

conversely, business processes in some industries are faced with many uncertainties and internal and external information interaction processes, which makes enterprise information systems have to flexibly adapt to these important influencing factors, and information systems in such industries need more flexibility. The most obvious example is the service industry, where the needs of customers are ever-changing. Enterprises must adapt to this change in order to obtain customers and win customer satisfaction. The efficiency of the whole system mainly does not depend on the tightness of the process, but on the adaptability to external changes. For this reason, flexibility in English is flexibility, which can also be translated as flexibility. Generally speaking, all industries of the tertiary industry emphasize flexibility, because the service object of the tertiary industry is people, and the service provider is also people. In the process of human-human interaction, plastic processing machinery and equipment enterprises have also increased their R & D and innovation on renewable plastic processing technology, and the requirements for flexibility are obviously higher than those of material manufacturing process

3. Business module

different business modules also have certain differences in integration and flexibility. Obviously, the tightness between production, manufacturing, sales, finance and other business modules is much higher than that of other modules, and generally speaking, the business processes of these modules have high stability, so they are more integrated between the modules with grade 2 fly ash and 42.5R ordinary portland cement as cementitious materials. On the contrary, the relationship between human resource management and other modules is relatively loose

for example, as far as the most common integration is concerned, there are many transactions between finance and manufacturing and sales related businesses every day. For example, an enterprise may have hundreds of inbound and outbound transactions every day, which requires a very high degree of integration between finance and business. However, the integration frequency between HR business and enterprise finance, production and other departments is not very high. For example, the closest integration comes from the collection of financial accounts and cost centers of labor costs after payroll, which may be done once a month. Moreover, the support of human resource management for enterprise operation activities is not reflected in the direct and superficial business connection, but mainly realized by internalizing the enterprise strategy and culture into all aspects of human resource management

therefore, it has been proposed that a hybrid information strategy can be adopted for different business module combinations. Some modules must be tightly coupled, while others can be loosely coupled; An EHR expert pointed out long ago that "e-HR should have been extracted (from ERP) for discussion"

moreover, compared with other business modules, human resource management is constantly undergoing minor adjustments and changes with the development of enterprises, such as the annual adjustment of performance management system and salary system; Some state-owned enterprises and institutions also face a large number of mandatory reporting requirements for management statements from superior competent units. The author once made some simple statistics. In state-owned enterprises, the average number of personnel statements alone reached as many as 100. These reports will also be constantly adjusted with the change of management. This often makes grassroots users miserable. The adjustment of financial management and production system will not be so frequent. At this time, if the EHR system cannot be flexibly adjusted with the changes of human resource management, the enterprise informatization investment will face great risks; It is also possible that customers have to resort to EHR manufacturers again at a high cost. All these show that the human resource management module has greater independence. Of course, this independence also exists in other modules, such as customer relationship management system (CRM)

third, what is the real "fit"?

make a brief summary. An enterprise should analyze and select the appropriate EHR manufacturer from its own informatization strategy, not to mention the actual situation of its industry and each business module (as shown in the figure below)

it should be noted that these three factors also have an interactive relationship. For example, the requirements of human resource management in manufacturing industry for independence and flexibility are far lower than those in the tertiary industry. As a high-tech enterprise executive said when referring to EHR, for high-tech enterprises, EHR is ERP. This sentence may not be applicable to other enterprises, but it illustrates the relative independence and importance of EHR in high-tech enterprises to a considerable extent

through the above analysis, enterprises can clarify their own characteristics, view the EHR system from the overall perspective of enterprise information construction, and make a scientific positioning

IV. improvement of integration by software interface technology

if it is really relatively independent from ERP and the human resources department leads the EHR construction, the human resources department will worry about system compatibility and whether it can be connected with ERP or other information systems. This is indeed a big problem in the early stage of enterprise informatization construction. However, with the emergence of a large number of integrated development platforms and development technologies, and the accumulation of enterprise information construction experience, the compatibility problem has been better solved

software interface technology is an important way of integration. Generally speaking, there are two kinds of software interfaces, one is data interface, the other is programming interface. The so-called data interface is to import the business data of one manufacturer into the business module of another manufacturer, and the so-called programming interface is that one manufacturer can call the data of another manufacturer through programming

the interface between e-HR products and ERP, which many enterprises pay attention to, mainly refers to the interface with their finance. In fact, the bookkeeping voucher of the financial general ledger can be generated on the interface requirements

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